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Whitebark pine is not commonly perceived as a mid-elevation species, but stand reconstruction studies show that whitebark pine was an important historical component of mid-elevation forests. By the time of the study (1991), whitebark pine dominated none of the mid-elevation study sites.
It was a minor component of subalpine forests in British Columbia and Alberta, and showed scattered occurrence on the Olympic Peninsula, the southern Cascades and other ranges of southern Oregon and upper northern California, and in northern Nevada . Threatened landscapes and fragile experiences: conflict in whitebark pine restoration. Shrubs typically show low cover; Oregon boxwood (Paxistima myrsinites) is the only constant shrub associate. Whitebark pine forms fringe forests and woodlands at timberline. It is an important component of alpine larch communities occurring below ~ 7,330 feet (2,230 m), and persists as krummholz in higher-elevation alpine larch communities . Rainier National Park, krummholz whitebark pine/common juniper (Juniperus communis) forests dominate high, rocky ridges above Yakima Park . K002 Cedar-hemlock-Douglas-fir forest K004 Fir-hemlock forest K007 Red fir forest K008 Lodgepole pine-subalpine forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K013 Cedar-hemlock-pine forest K015 Western spruce-fir forest K022 Great Basin pine forest 205 Mountain hemlock 206 Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir 207 Red fir 208 Whitebark pine 209 Bristlecone pine 210 Interior Douglas-fir 211 White fir 215 Western white pine 217 Aspen 218 Lodgepole pine 219 Limber pine 224 Western hemlock 226 Coastal true fir-hemlock 227 Western redcedar-western hemlock 229 Pacific Douglas-fir 230 Douglas-fir-western hemlock 247 Jeffrey pine 256 California mixed subalpine Although its role in the plant community is changing (see Management Considerations), whitebark pine historically dominated many of the upper subalpine plant communities of the western United States. In: Tomback, Diana F.; Arno, Stephen F.; Keane, Robert E., eds. Whitebark pine was a major component of subalpine forests in the northern Rocky Mountains, the northern Cascades, the Blue Mountains, and the Sierra Nevada. Whitebark pine communities: Ecology and restoration.
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Several other conifer species may share dominance with whitebark pine. In: Tomback, Diana F.; Arno, Stephen F.; Keane, Robert E., eds.