Dating the origin of the orchidaceae

The search for new molecules, nowadays, has taken a slightly different route where the science of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacognosy are being used as guide to lead the chemist towards different sources and classes of compounds.

It is in this context that the flora of the tropics by virtue of its diversity has a significant role to play in being able to provide new leads.

Growth of plant bipolar [roots with positive geotropic response]; plants heterosporous; megasporangium surrounded by cupule [i.e. (2004) suggested that the age of this node can be put at around 48 m.y., the age in Wolfe et al.

= unitegmic ovule, cupule = integument]; pollen lands on ovule; megaspore germination endosporic [female gametophyte initially retained on the plant]. Synonymy: Rehmanniaceae Reveal : stomata do not close (usually...); placentation parietal.

[MONILOPHYTA LIGNOPHYTA] Sporophyte growth ± monopodial, branching spiral; roots endomycorrhizal [with Glomeromycota], lateral roots , endogenous; G-type tracheids , with scalariform-bordered pits; leaves with apical/marginal growth, venation development basipetal, growth determinate; sporangium dehiscence by a single longitudinal slit; cells polyplastidic, MTOCs diffuse, perinuclear, migratory; blepharoplasts , paired, with electron-dense material, centrioles on periphery, male gametes multiciliate; nuclear genome size [1C] = 7.6-10 pg [mode]; chloroplast long single copy ca 30kb inversion [from psb M to ycf2]; mitochondrion with loss of 4 genes, absence of numerous group II introns; LITTLE ZIPPER proteins. For general information, see Terekhin and Nikitcheva (1981), Fischer (2004b: Scrophulariaceae p.

Sporophyte woody; stem branching lateral, meristems axillary; lateral root origin from the pericycle; cork cambium [producing cork abaxially], vascular cambium bifacial [producing phloem abaxially and xylem adaxially]. (2015) (38-)26(-13) m.y.; (56.5-)50, 44(-38.3) m.y. (Cusimano & Wicke 2016) and (38.5-)27.8(-17.3) m.y. pte), Demissew (2004: Cyclocheilaceae), Harley (2004: Nesogenaceae), papers in Folia Geobot. 2005, the Parasitic Plants website (Nickrent 1998 onwards), Heide-Jørgensen (2008) and Hjertsen (1995: Lindenbergia); for floral development, see Canne-Hilliker (1987), for corolla aestivation, see Eichler (1875) and Armstrong and Douglas (1989), for the development of the upper lip/galea of the corolla in Pedicularis, see W.-B. (2013), for pollen, see Minkin and Eshbaugh (1989), Lu et al. (2014: heteromorphism in Orobancheae) and Piwowarczyk et al. European Orobancheae), for ovules and seeds, see Takhtajan (2013), for ovules of Cyclocheilon, etc., see Junell (1934), for embryology, see Krishna Iyengar (1940b), Tiagi (1963) and Arekal (1963) and references, for embryo and endosperm, see Crété (1955), and for seed morphology, see Musselman and Mann (1976), Joel et al.

[TROCHODENDRALES [BUXALES CORE EUDICOTS: benzylisoquinoline alkaloids 0; eu AP3 TM6 genes [duplication of paleo AP3 gene: B class], mitochondrial rps2 gene lost. Cyrtandromoea (if it belongs here) has been included in Gesneriaceae-Didymocarpoideae-Epithemateae, although Burtt (1965) linked Cyrtandromoea with Leucocarpus, which he thought belonged to Scrophulariaceae and which then moved to Phrymaceae.

[BUXALES CORE EUDICOTS]: mitochondrial rps11 gene lost. Evolution: Lamiales contain ca 12.3% eudicot diversity. The mostly Australian Glossostigma is scarcely bigger than Lemna, while small plants of Mimulus jepsonii may consist only of cotyledons, a pair of foliage leaves, and a flower (T.

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], lignin also with syringyl units common [G S lignin, positive Maüle reaction - syringyl:guaiacyl ratio more than 2-2.5:1], hemicelluloses as xyloglucans; root cap meristem closed (open); pith relatively inconspicuous, lateral roots initiated immediately to the side of [when diarch] or opposite xylem poles; origin of epidermis with no clear pattern [probably from inner layer of root cap], trichoblasts [differentiated root R-Put-forming cells] 0, hypodermis suberised and with Casparian strip [= exodermis]; shoot apex with tunica-corpus construction, tunica 2-layered; starch grains simple; primary cell wall mostly with pectic polysaccharides, poor in mannans; tracheid:tracheid [end wall] plates with scalariform pitting, wood parenchyma ; sieve tubes enucleate, sieve plate with pores (0.1-)0.5-10; protoplasm dessication tolerant [plant poikilohydric]; stomata randomly oriented, brachyparacytic [ends of subsidiary cells level with ends of pore], outer stomatal ledges producing vestibule, reduction in stomatal conductance with increasing CO concentration; lamina formed from the primordial leaf apex, margins toothed, development of venation acropetal, overall growth ± diffuse, secondary veins pinnate, fine venation hierarchical-reticulate, (1.7-)4.1(-5.7) mm/mm, vein endings free; flowers perfect, pedicellate, ± haplomorphic, protogynous; parts free, numbers variable, development centripetal; P = T, petal-like, each with a single trace, outer members not sharply differentiated from the others, not enclosing the floral bud; A many, filament not sharply distinguished from anther, stout, broad, with a single trace, anther introrse, tetrasporangiate, sporangia in two groups of two [dithecal], each theca dehiscing longitudinally by a common slit, ± embedded in the filament, walls with at least outer secondary parietal cells dividing, endothecium , cells elongated at right angles to long axis of anther; tapetal cells binucleate; microspore mother cells in a block, microsporogenesis successive, walls developing by centripetal furrowing; pollen subspherical, tectum continuous or microperforate, ektexine columellate, endexine lamellate only in the apertural regions, thin, compact, intine in apertural areas thick, orbicules , pollenkitt ; nectary 0; carpels present, superior, free, several, spiral, ascidiate [postgenital occlusion by secretion], stylulus at most short [shorter than ovary], hollow, cavity not lined by distinct epidermal layer, stigma ± decurrent, carinal, dry; suprastylar extragynoecial compitum ; ovules few [? [Photo - Flower.] Paulowniaceae are deciduous trees to climbers that may be recognised by their large, entire, opposite leaves and terminal inflorescences with large, monosymmetric flowers; the calyx is densely covered with brown indumentum. Erbar and Gülden (2011) noted that the terminal flowers in an inflorescence of Paulownia might have five stamens - peloria. Rehmannieae Rouy Plant rhizomatous; leaves spiral; bracts ± foliaceous, (bracteoles 0); (staminode ); stigma lobes sensitive; n = ?

The paper also presents some data on the use of plant products in the development of functional foods, addresses the needs for validation of plant extracts and always stressing on safety, efficacy and quality of phyto-medications.

Pirani & Prado Gametophyte dominant, independent, multicellular, initially ±globular, not motile, branched; showing gravitropism; acquisition of phenylalanine lysase* [PAL], flavonoid synthesis*, microbial terpene synthase-like genes , triterpenoids produced by CYP716 enzymes, CYP73 and phenylpropanoid metabolism [development of phenolic network], xyloglucans in primary cell wall, side chains charged; plant poikilohydrous [protoplasm dessication tolerant], ectohydrous [free water outside plant physiologically important]; thalloid, leafy, with single-celled apical meristem, tissues little differentiated, rhizoids , unicellular; chloroplasts several per cell, pyrenoids 0; glycolate metabolism in leaf peroxisomes [glyoxysomes]; centrioles/centrosomes in vegetative cells 0, microtubules with γ-tubulin along their lengths [? (warm) temperate and Africa-Madagascar (map: from van Steenis & van Balgooy 1966; Hultén 1971; Meusel et al. Alectra vogelii may cause the complete loss of legume crops it infects (Morawetz & Wolfe 2009). For fatty acids in the seeds of Orobanche, see Velasco et al. For haustorial anatomy, see Solms-Laubach (1867); Batashev et al. Thus 12 genera from the old Buchnereae (Fischer 2003) were not examined, but they include a mere 25 species. (2009) provide a phylogenetic classification of Castillejinae; Uribe-Convers and Tank (2016) rearranged generic limits around Bartsia, and for genera in the Rhinantheae as a whole, see Pinto-Carrasco et al.

whole nuclear genome duplication [ε/epsilon event]; ndh B gene 21 codons enlarged at the 5' end, single copy of LEAFY and RPB2 gene, knox genes extensively duplicated [A1-A4], AP1/FUL gene, palaeo AP3 and PI genes [paralogous B-class genes] , with "DEAER" motif, SEP3/LOFSEP and three copies of the PHY gene, [PHYB [PHYA PHYC; chloroplast chl B, -L, -N, trn P-GGG genes 0. Paulownia has endosperm and lacks the distinctive ovary and seed anatomy of Bignoniaceae (Armstrong 1985; Manning 2000; Lersten et al. ; head of glandular hairs lacking vertical partitions; lamina margins often toothed to deeply lobed; C with abaxial-median or abaxial-lateral lobes outside others [quincuncial, descending cochlear] in bud; placentae paired-stipitate; seed with exotestal cells variously thickened on the inner walls. World wide, but especially North (warm) Temperate and Africa-Madagascar. Crown-group Orobanchaceae are estimated to be (47.1-)35.7(-24.3) m.y.o.

[NYMPHAEALES [AUSTROBAILEYALES CHLORANTHALES MAGNOLIIDS] [MONOCOTS [CERATOPHYLLALES EUDICOTS]]]: wood fibres ; axial parenchyma diffuse or diffuse-in-aggregates; pollen monosulcate [anasulcate], tectum reticulate-perforate [here? genome duplication; "DEAER" motif in AP3 and PI genes lost, gaps in these genes. 2002); on the other hand, Catalpa is definitely to be included in Bignoniaceae. by Tank and Olmstead (2017) and (36-)30.2(-25.6) m.y.

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], lignin also with syringyl units common [G S lignin, positive Maüle reaction - syringyl:guaiacyl ratio more than 2-2.5:1], hemicelluloses as xyloglucans; root cap meristem closed (open); pith relatively inconspicuous, lateral roots initiated immediately to the side of [when diarch] or opposite xylem poles; origin of epidermis with no clear pattern [probably from inner layer of root cap], trichoblasts [differentiated root R-Put-forming cells] 0, hypodermis suberised and with Casparian strip [= exodermis]; shoot apex with tunica-corpus construction, tunica 2-layered; starch grains simple; primary cell wall mostly with pectic polysaccharides, poor in mannans; tracheid:tracheid [end wall] plates with scalariform pitting, wood parenchyma ; sieve tubes enucleate, sieve plate with pores (0.1-)0.5-10; protoplasm dessication tolerant [plant poikilohydric]; stomata randomly oriented, brachyparacytic [ends of subsidiary cells level with ends of pore], outer stomatal ledges producing vestibule, reduction in stomatal conductance with increasing CO concentration; lamina formed from the primordial leaf apex, margins toothed, development of venation acropetal, overall growth ± diffuse, secondary veins pinnate, fine venation hierarchical-reticulate, (1.7-)4.1(-5.7) mm/mm, vein endings free; flowers perfect, pedicellate, ± haplomorphic, protogynous; parts free, numbers variable, development centripetal; P = T, petal-like, each with a single trace, outer members not sharply differentiated from the others, not enclosing the floral bud; A many, filament not sharply distinguished from anther, stout, broad, with a single trace, anther introrse, tetrasporangiate, sporangia in two groups of two [dithecal], each theca dehiscing longitudinally by a common slit, ± embedded in the filament, walls with at least outer secondary parietal cells dividing, endothecium , cells elongated at right angles to long axis of anther; tapetal cells binucleate; microspore mother cells in a block, microsporogenesis successive, walls developing by centripetal furrowing; pollen subspherical, tectum continuous or microperforate, ektexine columellate, endexine lamellate only in the apertural regions, thin, compact, intine in apertural areas thick, orbicules , pollenkitt ; nectary 0; carpels present, superior, free, several, spiral, ascidiate [postgenital occlusion by secretion], stylulus at most short [shorter than ovary], hollow, cavity not lined by distinct epidermal layer, stigma ± decurrent, carinal, dry; suprastylar extragynoecial compitum ; ovules few [? [Photo - Flower.] Paulowniaceae are deciduous trees to climbers that may be recognised by their large, entire, opposite leaves and terminal inflorescences with large, monosymmetric flowers; the calyx is densely covered with brown indumentum. Erbar and Gülden (2011) noted that the terminal flowers in an inflorescence of Paulownia might have five stamens - peloria. Rehmannieae Rouy Plant rhizomatous; leaves spiral; bracts ± foliaceous, (bracteoles 0); (staminode ); stigma lobes sensitive; n = ? The paper also presents some data on the use of plant products in the development of functional foods, addresses the needs for validation of plant extracts and always stressing on safety, efficacy and quality of phyto-medications.Pirani & Prado Gametophyte dominant, independent, multicellular, initially ±globular, not motile, branched; showing gravitropism; acquisition of phenylalanine lysase* [PAL], flavonoid synthesis*, microbial terpene synthase-like genes , triterpenoids produced by CYP716 enzymes, CYP73 and phenylpropanoid metabolism [development of phenolic network], xyloglucans in primary cell wall, side chains charged; plant poikilohydrous [protoplasm dessication tolerant], ectohydrous [free water outside plant physiologically important]; thalloid, leafy, with single-celled apical meristem, tissues little differentiated, rhizoids , unicellular; chloroplasts several per cell, pyrenoids 0; glycolate metabolism in leaf peroxisomes [glyoxysomes]; centrioles/centrosomes in vegetative cells 0, microtubules with γ-tubulin along their lengths [? (warm) temperate and Africa-Madagascar (map: from van Steenis & van Balgooy 1966; Hultén 1971; Meusel et al. Alectra vogelii may cause the complete loss of legume crops it infects (Morawetz & Wolfe 2009). For fatty acids in the seeds of Orobanche, see Velasco et al. For haustorial anatomy, see Solms-Laubach (1867); Batashev et al. Thus 12 genera from the old Buchnereae (Fischer 2003) were not examined, but they include a mere 25 species. (2009) provide a phylogenetic classification of Castillejinae; Uribe-Convers and Tank (2016) rearranged generic limits around Bartsia, and for genera in the Rhinantheae as a whole, see Pinto-Carrasco et al. whole nuclear genome duplication [ε/epsilon event]; ndh B gene 21 codons enlarged at the 5' end, single copy of LEAFY and RPB2 gene, knox genes extensively duplicated [A1-A4], AP1/FUL gene, palaeo AP3 and PI genes [paralogous B-class genes] , with "DEAER" motif, SEP3/LOFSEP and three copies of the PHY gene, [PHYB [PHYA PHYC]]; chloroplast chl B, -L, -N, trn P-GGG genes 0. Paulownia has endosperm and lacks the distinctive ovary and seed anatomy of Bignoniaceae (Armstrong 1985; Manning 2000; Lersten et al. ; head of glandular hairs lacking vertical partitions; lamina margins often toothed to deeply lobed; C with abaxial-median or abaxial-lateral lobes outside others [quincuncial, descending cochlear] in bud; placentae paired-stipitate; seed with exotestal cells variously thickened on the inner walls. World wide, but especially North (warm) Temperate and Africa-Madagascar. Crown-group Orobanchaceae are estimated to be (47.1-)35.7(-24.3) m.y.o. [NYMPHAEALES [AUSTROBAILEYALES CHLORANTHALES MAGNOLIIDS] [MONOCOTS [CERATOPHYLLALES EUDICOTS]]]: wood fibres ; axial parenchyma diffuse or diffuse-in-aggregates; pollen monosulcate [anasulcate], tectum reticulate-perforate [here? genome duplication; "DEAER" motif in AP3 and PI genes lost, gaps in these genes. 2002); on the other hand, Catalpa is definitely to be included in Bignoniaceae. by Tank and Olmstead (2017) and (36-)30.2(-25.6) m.y.

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Search for dating the origin of the orchidaceae:

dating the origin of the orchidaceae-6

1]/carpel, marginal, anatropous, bitegmic, micropyle endostomal, outer integument 2-3 cells across, often largely subdermal in origin, inner integument 2-3 cells across, often dermal in origin, parietal tissue 1-3 cells across, nucellar cap? In the characterization above, possible apomorphies that refer to both genera have an asterisk, the rest refer to Paulownia alone; Wightia is very poorly known. The combination of cornoside with iridoids is unusual in Lamiales (Q.-M. The ad- → abaxial direction of development of members of the calyx and the corolla whorls is unusual in Lamiales (Erbar & Gülden 2011), although observations are limited.

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